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optoelectronics Inside Catopsys’ projector. So what made Catopsys go after the consumer market now? “It is a combination of factors”, admits Duhautbout, “lately we’ve seen more and more panoramic formats appear, Google certainly initiated the trend with Street Views, then the Photosphere. But it is really the acquisition of Oculus Rift by Facebook beginning of 2014 that sent a clear message. The market understood that virtual reality is panoramic, not a flat perspective”. “From there, we have seen more and more panoramic cameras on the market, such as Giroptic’s 360Cam, so we are betting on consumers to develop more panoramic content, and they will want an adequate projector to view this content”. Initially, Immersis will still require the user to perform some calibration, by providing a 3D model of the projection space. Although this can be done through Immersis’ configuration tool by describing the dimensions of the room or by importing a 3D model (.obj, .fbx, collada or other standard formats created by software like Maya, 3DS Max, Blender or Sketchup), this explains why the projector is mostly addressed at the rather geeky gamers’ community accustomed to tweak their hardware and software to optimise their gaming experience. Through a dedicated driver, Immersis also relies on the gamers’ powerful GPUs to perform the anamorphosis computations. But on the company’s roadmap is automated 3D acquisition of the projection space (through structured lighting or other 3D scanning techniques), and automated calibration. To make the projector more self-reliant, and because the anamorphosises are very compute-intensive, it would make sense to have a dedicated ASIC. This would also be one way to expand the company’s business beyond its own proprietary projector solutions. “We are open to any cooperation with suitable industrial partners for the manufacture of realtime anamorphosis chips” admitted Duhautbout, mentioning NVidia as a serious contender. Another way to serve a larger market may be through licensing the anamorphosis software to video projector makers, since the hardware at this stage is not the most difficult part. As for today’s $2500 price tag, Duhautbout finds it attractive compared to today’s alternatives which would require a dome or a dedicated projection room setup by professionals. He also justifies the premium by the fact that the projector hardware is not only highly integrated, but offers a realistic 3D immersion that no other video projector on the market would offer. Atomic level LEDs open up flexible electronics opportunities By Paul Buckley Researchers at the University of Manchester and University of Sheffield have demonstrated that 2D ‘designer materials’ can be produced to create flexible, see-through and more efficient electronic devices. The team, led by Nobel Laureate Sir Kostya Novoselov, has created LEDs which were engineered on an atomic level and has published the research findings in the scientific journal Nature Materials. The research shows that graphene and related 2D materials could be utilized to create light emitting devices for the next- generation of mobile phones, tablets and televisions to make them incredibly thin, flexible, durable and even semi-transparent. The LED device was constructed by combining different 2D crystals and emits light from across its whole surface. Being so thin, at only 10-40 atoms thick, these new components can form the basis for the first generation of semi-transparent smart devices. By building heterostructures – stacked layers of various 2D materials – to create bespoke functionality and introducing quantum wells to control the movement of electrons, new possibilities for graphene based optoelectronics have now been realized. Freddie Withers, Royal Academy of Engineering Research Fellow at The University of Manchester, who led the production of the devices, said: “As our new type of LED’s only consist of a few atomic layers of 2D materials they are flexible and transparent. We envisage a new generation of optoelectronic devices to stem from this work, from simple transparent lighting and lasers and to more complex applications.” Sir Kostya Novoselov said: “By preparing the heterostructures on elastic and transparent substrates, we show that they can provide the basis for flexible and semitransparent electronics”. “The range of functionalities for the demonstrated heterostructures is expected to grow further on increasing the number of available 2D crystals and improving their electronic quality.” Prof Alexander Tartakovskii, from The University of Sheffield added: “The novel LED structures are robust and show no significant change in performance over many weeks of measurements”. “Despite the early days in the raw materials manufacture, the quantum efficiency (photons emitted per electron injected) is already comparable to organic LEDs.” 16 Electronic Engineering Times Europe February 2015 www.electronics-eetimes.com


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