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Ultra-Miniature - High Reliability Quartz Crystals, Oscillators and Sensors • Highest shock capability in the industry • Military temperature range and beyond • Ultra-low power consumption • High stability and precision EXTREME INNOVATION High Reliability Crystals and Oscillators • Expert technical support • Designed and manufactured in the USA CX16A Medical Military and Industrial Applications CXOX_A CX16 CXOX/HG/HT CXOMK • Excellent long term aging 24 MHz to 50 MHz Crystal 2.0 x 1.2 x 0.4 mm 16 MHz to 250 MHz Crystal 3.2 x 1.5 x 0.5 mm 32.768 kHz to 160 MHz Oscillator 3.2 x 2.5 mm 32.768 kHz to 200 MHz Oscillator CX11A CX11L/HG CXOMK/HG/HT 6.5 x 5.0 mm High-Shock • High-Temperature • High-Precision Military and Avionics | Industrial | Medical MEETING THE EXTREME DEMANDS OF RAPIDLY EVOLVING TECHNOLOGY AS9100C ISO 9001:2008 STATEK CORPORATION 512 N. Main St., Orange, CA 92868 Tel. 714-639-7810 Fax 714-997-1256 www.statek.com min 6G – see figure 2 - and Coumarin 1 at an accuracy of 10-6 Mol/l. At a thickness of 200 μm Toluidin Blue could be detected at a concentration of 10 μMolar. The importance of color differences in mineral oils and fuels The international industry strongly regulates fuels or petroleum products via many standards. Color values of fuel or petroleum are used as an indicator for many applications: such as taxation or usage domain regulations. Examples of color scales in this field are the ASTM D1500, Pt-Co or Gardner color scales. They show a progression of color ranging from soft yellow-whitish to dark orange-brown – see figure 3. The standard ASTM D 6045 describes the tristimulus color measurement method ranging from Saybolt to ASTM colors, which color range similar to figure 3. The Saybolt Color scale is used for grading light colored petroleum products including aviation fuels, kerosine, naphthas, white mineral oils or hydrocarbon. Whereas the ASTM color scale is used for darker colored petroleum products. It is a challenging task to measure the difference between Saybolt samples, since the color differences are often hardly visible by the human eye. Looking at a clever designed test setup it is possible to even detect the finest peaks or color differences. Beyond the measurement setup it is possible to improve the results of liquid measurements or other fluid based applications by means of mathematical algorisms. Therefore spectral data can be used to improve the accuracy and implement complex simulation and detection methods. For example the method of particle swarm optimization combined with the characteristics of JENCOLOR interference filter sensors from MAZeT. The result of this kind of optimization procedures is to achieve accuracies that are able to distinguish between seemingly equal colored liquids. The following image shows measurements that represent the chromaticity coordinates of multiple measured fluid samples in the Saybolt range within the CIE Color Space. The range values are defined by the standard and show how accurate a color detection system needs to be, to meet the given standard – see figure 4. Fig. 4: Tristimulus analysis of Saybolt samples. Cost saving potential of multi-spectral sensors in the printing industry Other applications can be found in the printing industry. This field has strong requirements regarding color consistency and standards. An error during the printing process, where the corporate colors change during an inline-process can cost a lot of money. What is supposed to happen? Should the production be stopped or continued? Every misprint is a dollar lost. A special measurement setup for absolute print colors can improve this situation, whereas the in-line color change can be actively measured and referred to the values of a spectrometer. The special JENCOLOR filter technology of MAZeT’s sensors allows long-term stable measurements over years without the need of constant recalibration, like known from a spectrometer. An advantage of multi-spectral sensors is the greater accuracy and the possibility to use spectral approximation methods. If the printing colors are known, the results can be improved via calibration of the specific colors. Therefore it is possible to achieve absolute accuracies of Δ E00 < 1 independent of the standard observer and standard light source. Utilizing a multi-spectral sensor and multi- channel transimpedance amplifier at flexible amplification levels the further measurements took place. A set of Avian Ceram Basic Series was used for target calibration. The goal was it to improve the Fig. 5: Cyan print color sample after optimization at a value of ΔE00 = 0.25 www.electronics-eetimes.com Electronic Engineering Times Europe June 2014 41


EETE JUN 2014
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