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device that communicates over a sub-GHz frequency band with fast 2-way transmission (see Figure 1 below). The application uses a high-resolution e-paper display and requires an ultra-low power N801 to help run for 5 years. Embedded computer requirements for IoT devices, such as the ESL, include security, communications, sensing and control, and power management. Security is essential to prevent network attacks as well as physical attacks and to protect against software/firmware theft. Communications requires megabytes of processing to handle proprietary or standard protocols such as RFID, 802.15.4, Bluetooth Smart, Bluetooth 4.1, WiFi 802.11 ah, and LTE Cat-0. Processing a variety of sensor data coming from the control interface requires versatile DSP capabilities. And power management is essential Fig. 2: The Andes Technology secure microprocessor unit. to enable months to years of operation on small batteries or harvested energy, thus demanding processors with efficient power management for long sleep cycles, fast power-up/powerdown, and the ability to operate at varying clock frequencies— to sip energy rather than full-on or full-off. To serve this range of requirements, embedded processors need to provide general-purpose computing with high performance efficiency and flexible power consumption. They must offer DSP computing capabilities such as SIMD (single instruction multiple data) processing to efficiently handle the wide range of sensors operating with these IoT devices. Finally, these embedded processors need to be extensible to allow application specific acceleration and added security. This is the architecture Andes created in its new generation of embedded processors developed in 2006 and enhanced over time since then to adapt to IoT application needs. For example, the Andes Technology secure microprocessor unit, shown in figure 2, and the S8 CPU core together provide security from hacking. The secure microprocessor unit (MPU) provides functions not found on competitive 32-bit CPU core offerings: data and address scrambling and differential power analysis protection. The first provides defense against hacks that target the interface between CPU and memory. The second guards against hacking the program by observing the power use signature of the CPU. While having an elegant architecture addresses the problem on paper, the real solution results from being able to realize the complete solution in a final IoT device. As a CPU IP supplier, Andes provides a complete pre-integrated low-power SoC IP development platform to realize compact code size, low power, and secure debug. This platform comprises a full complement of peripherals surrounding the CPU core, a software development environment with real-time operating system, device drivers, and the software stacks that typical IoT applications require. This is all supplemented with FPGA-based and silicon-based development boards to prototype the IoT applications before producing final silicon and/or final devices. Over the remainder of this decade, SoC designs to implement Internet of Things devices will proliferate. These IoT designs will differ greatly from those going into mobile devices of today. IoT chips will require an order of magnitude less power consumption, while still demanding high performance and a minimal silicon footprint. Only CPU cores based on next generation architectural features such as those Andes Technology pioneered can hope to meet these stringent requirements. Top tips for keeping corporate Email secure By Jacob Ginsberg Data breaches are on the rise and cyber criminals are doing everything they can to steal sensitive corporate and private personal data. As innovation drives Internet into every area of our lives, cyber criminals continue to find new ways to take advantage of its vulnerabilities. A perfect example is last year’s catastrophic breach at Sony Entertainment, an event which underscores how no company is safe from attack. For highly regulated industries like financial and legal services, the consequences of a breach can be disastrous. Email security solutions like email encryption are now a crucial asset for industry professionals, representing an important line of defence as well as facilitating compliance. Here are a couple of top tips that companies can put in place to keep their email communications secure: 1. Dont forget about internal threats Despite companies installing antispam, anti-malware, encryption and monitoring tools, there is still a chance that attacks can get through. That’s because cyber criminals exploit a companys weakest asset its people. Employees are the biggest threat to any organisations cyber security policy. According to Gartner, 84 per cent of high cost security incidents result from employees sending confidential data outside of the company. Despite this, only half of companies are implementing employee training schemes. Employee training is the most effective way of combatting employee negligence resulting in data loss. Jacob Ginsberg is Senior Director of Products at Echoworx - www.echoworx.com www.electronics-eetimes.com Electronic Engineering Times Europe June 2015 27


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