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RF & MICROWAVE DESIGN particular part of the FCC rules which apply and must also meet certain criteria in order to gain modular approval. These include requirements such as the module must have shielded circuitry, a unique antenna connector, must be compliant in a stand-alone configuration, must meet RF exposure requirements etc. When all of these requirements are met and the device is certified, the FCC grant will state that the device has modular approval. The grant will also stipulate certain conditions of use. For example, most modules are for use in “mobile” applications where the host product must not be used less than 20cm from the human head or body, and the module may not be collocated in the product with another wireless transmitter. Provided the conditions of the grant are adhered to, there should be no further testing or certification required for the intentional radiator part of the host equipment, but a label should be displayed stating that an approved wireless module is contained within the host. Where multiple modules are integrated together, then the rules can become complex, particularly if the host device is to be used in a “portable” application where the device is used within 20cm of the human head or body and RF exposure becomes a major issue. Where the conditions of the modular grant cannot be adhered to when integrated into the final host, additional testing and certification is usually required. In all cases, the module manufacturer must provide the integrator with comprehensive integration instructions, so that they can fully understand the conditions and limitations for authorised use of the modular transmitter. The Industry Canada rules for modules are broadly similar to those of the FCC and are laid down in RSS-GEN Section 3. With different rules applying to the global marketplace, manufacturers are advised to follow some basic guidelines when integrating wireless modules into products. For European compliance, ensure that the wireless module you are integrating is fully compliant with the latest Harmonised Standards and is integrated in accordance with the manufacturer’s supplied instructions. While the module manufacturer should be aware of the integration rules, as a minimum the final/host product manufacturer should check the module’s DoC to ensure that it lists Harmonised Standards which are in date. It is also important to have access to the module manufacturer’s technical file in case the host product manufacturer is asked to prove compliance by a country’s market surveillance authority. This should involve checking the EU Official Journal to see if the standard to which the wireless module was tested has an expiry date and if so, take action well in advance. Remember that products containing wireless transmitters must comply with national radio regulations no matter where in the world they are used, a product containing a wireless transmitter must not be shipped to a non-EU country without checking the regulations. For USA and Canada, host product manufacturers should check the conditions of the module grant and ensure that the product is not breaking those conditions. Once again, follow the module manufacturer’s guidance on integration. A key reason for non-compliance of final host products containing wireless modules is that while these modules are compliant as an independent unit, once they are integrated into another product, that changes the regulatory requirements. Many Manufacturers are assuming that because the wireless module is compliant, no further action on their behalf is required. This may not be the case. In any country, the market surveillance authorities can come down hard on manufacturers that supply non-compliant equipment to the market and ignorance of the rules is no excuse. Automatic radar signal analysis speeds up ADAS development By Christoph Wagner In the aim of reducing accidents, today’s vehicles are increasingly equipped with technologies that provide support to the driver in critical situations. Besides cameras and ultrasonic sensors, the automotive industry is turning more and more to radar as the cost of the associated technology decreases. Radar allows very fast and clear-cut measurement of the velocity and distance of multiple objects under any weather conditions. This is enabling solutions for automated driving. The relevant radar signals are frequency-modulated and can be analysed with spectrum analysers. In this manner, developers of radar components can automatically detect, measure and display the signals in the time and frequency domains – even up to frequencies of 500 GHz. According to a study by the Audi Accident Research Unit, more than 90 % of all accidents on the road can be attributed to human error. Furthermore, the accident rate could be drastically reduced by implementing automated driving (similar to the autopilot systems used in aircraft). Although it might sound like something from a science-fiction novel, automated driving has already become reality in many cars in the luxury class and now increasingly in the medium-price class too. Besides the now classic parking-assistance system, there are other functions to help with everyday driving such as a lane-change assistant, blind-spot detection and adaptive cruise control. While a parking assistance system is based on a clear yes/no procedure where information is paramount, adaptive cruise control can involve modifying the driving speed in response to the vehicle in front, for example. Maintaining the flow of traffic Another reason why automated driving has become such an important topic is related to the rapid development of megaci- Christoph Wagner heads business development for the automotive market segment at Rohde & Schwarz in Munich – www.rohde-schwarz.com 36 Electronic Engineering Times Europe October 2014 www.electronics-eetimes.com


EETE OCT 2014
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