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Programmable logic seamless wireless connectivity solutions (macro and smallcell radio technologies) using a combination of cellular and Wi-Fi technologies enhanced with millimeter-wave backhaul and direct connections to the optical network. The facility also supports experimentation platforms for new 5G-and-beyond access technologies such as millimeter-wave-based access solutions with beam tracking, as well as new technology enablers such as massive MIMO for ultrahigh-density networks in the 2-GHz band. In addition, BIO provides priority access to the infrastructure (for example, lampposts) for the additional installation of sensor nodes in the area, supported by suitable data aggregators, computing and storage resources. Optionally, these resources can directly interface into the wired and wireless network. BIO has also installed a low-energy wireless-sensor mesh network. This network will support IoT-based research, with initial sensors supporting environmental monitoring (temperature, air quality, pollution levels, lighting, noise and humidity) and smart streetlights. BIO will also provide access, through suitable secure interfaces, to IoT assets already installed elsewhere in the city, including parking sensors, traffic lights, traffic flow sensors, surveillance (safety) cameras and public-vehicle sensors. Small sensors, including the smartphones and GPS devices of willing participants, will supply information about many aspects of city life, including energy, air quality and traffic flows. All the data generated will be rendered anonymous and made public through an “open data” portal. The entire platform uses SDN control principles and, as such, is fully programmable by experimenters and end users. Internationally, the BIO experimental network will be the first of its kind and will generate new and exciting opportunities to pioneer the development of hardware and software for future communication technologies and cloud networking. Software-defined networking for city infrastructures The communications sector has seen a flowering of innovative solutions in recent years based on the concept of SDN, bringing advances in IT to the traditional hardware-driven telecommunications world. This decoupling of control and data through SDN enables innovative ways of controlling a network, while relying on a basic data-forwarding operation, common across all networking elements. The approach allows the integration of novel architecture concepts, such as information-centric networking (ICN), into such a software-driven network. SDN also enables continuous investment into smart infrastructure at the lowest layers of the ICT installations by driving the reduction of costs for physical components and pushing more of the operational aspects into the software. As SDN is now reaching beyond ICT infrastructures into the IoT platforms, it creates the opportunity to realize a full circle of adaptability of computing and communication infrastructures, where sensory and real-world information drives the operation of the network. Network infrastructures in turn are utilized to provide the sensor information to applications and services in a meaningful and timely manner. At BIO, it is our vision for that programmability and adaptability across the various layers of the overall system to ultimately implement the notion of what we call a Living Network, where the Internet and things truly merge into a coherently managed and operated computing and communication environment. Demonstrating SDN-based platforms on a citywide scale is crucial. Fig. 2: NetoOS is an SDN-based platform, built in a multilayer structure, which can communicate with networking, IT and IoT technologies. This platform natively supports data collection, virtualization, information modeling and interfacing with third-party applications. Future Internet and 5G technologies are present in the BIO testbed, specifically an SDN-enabled optical-backbone infrastructure using current and contemporary (i.e., Wi-Fi, LTE, millimeter-wave) radio access technologies. The stimulating media and entrepreneurial community is present throughout the BIO testbed (the engine shed in Figure 1 is home to a startup incubator and the watershed is home to the media community in Bristol). Members of these communities also serve as an excellent set of early-user groups for the use case work. Their involvement in BIO allows us to capture the insights and requirements posed by the municipal communities. The wired, wireless and RF mesh networks are technologyagnostic, built on open-network principles using SDN technologies that enable network function virtualization. A city operating system called NetOS - see figure 2 - also based on SDN principles, will provide the needed programmability and adaptability for smart cities. NetOS will be an overarching and distributed operating system spanning from terminals (even the more advanced ones, e.g., mobile robots, drones) through the network elements to the cloud/IT resources. This citywide OS will cope with the heterogeneity of underlying resources based on a distributed software architecture. NetOS will act as a logical entity that is implemented in a hierarchical manner with distributed software, making it possible to map varied services on the infrastructure. Virtualization for city infrastructure A large number of highly diverse city applications need to be supported on top of the city infrastructures. For example, some applications will demand high capacity and very low latency. Others will consume very little bandwidth but will need to support a very large number of endpoints. Still others will have strict requirements on resiliency or security, privacy and so on. It is neither feasible nor cost-effective to establish dedicated infrastructures to support specific applications. Therefore, one of the key challenges for the city infrastructure operators is to offer customized, application-specific network solutions over a common ICT infrastructure. Virtualization, when integrated with an SDN-enabled control platform, is a key technical enabler for addressing this challenge. Virtualization is able to create multiple coexisting but isolated virtual infrastructures running in parallel, serving its tenant’s application requirements. By thorough analysis of each tenant’s requirements in terms of social policy, security and resources, it’s possible to con- 44 Electronic Engineering Times Europe October 2015 www.electronics-eetimes.com


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