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Mimicking radar, the OFDM wave communicates with a car in front through two antennas while simultaneously listening to that car’s echo. Heath said this communication method could make many message types possible and, with some signal processing, could allow for better accuracy than what other bandwidths would dictate. Most new cars likely will have radar as a standard feature in two years, Heath predicted - and if those cars also have an embedded communications chip, information from the vehicle can be cross-validated with existing hardware. Heath’s team is working on a vehicle security prototype that uses 802.11p at 5.8 GHz to communicate alongside a 77 GHz radar and a custom wave form generator from National Instruments “to show that communication helps you avoid the spoofing problem, and improve radar security.” Research into the overlap between radar and communications is sponsored by the Texas Department of Transportation with the goal of using joint sensor data through machine learning and sensor fusion. Heath’s team hopes to collaborate further on radar security projects and prototyping. Changes to radio rules By Jean-Louis Evans The Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive (R&TTE) was introduced in April 2000, but the European Commission became concerned about the low level of compliance for some categories of radio equipment. This, coupled with the growth of mobile devices and wireless applications, led the Commission to publish the new Radio Equipment Directive (RED) 2014/53/EU in the Official Journal of the European Union on 22 May 2014. As the RED will be applicable from 13 June 2016, Member States now have a transition period of less than nine months to transpose the new RED into their national laws. However, manufacturers will have an additional year to comply, as equipment compliant with the current R&TTE Directive before 13 June 2016 may continue to be placed on the market until 13 June 2017. Within Article 43 of the RED, a “making available on the market” and “putting into service” provision means that products which comply with the R&TTE Directive before 13 June 2016, and which are placed on the market before 13 June 2017, may be sold and brought into service later. Where the RED applies Products which fit within the following definition are subject to the RED: “Radio equipment – an electrical or electronic product which intentionally emits or receives radio waves for the purpose of radio communication and/or radio determination, or an electrical or electronic product which must be completed with an accessory (such as an antenna) so as to intentionally emit and/ or receive radio waves for the purpose of radio communication and/or radio determination.” All radio receivers, including broadcast radio and TV receivers, fall within this definition. Radio communication means ‘communication by means of radio waves’, while radio determination means the determination of the position, velocity and/or other characteristics of an object, or the obtaining of information relating to those parameters, by means of the propagation properties of radio waves. The RED excludes equipment that is “radio equipment exclusively used for activities concerning public security, defence, State security, including the economic wellbeing of the State in the case of activities pertaining to State security matters, and the activities of the State in the area of criminal law”. Marine equipment that falls within the scope of Council Directive 96/98/EC is also excluded. This includes equipment on board a new European ship, even if it was constructed outside of the EU, as well as replacement equipment or additional equipment installed on an existing European ship. Airborne products, parts and appliances falling within the scope of Article 3 of Regulation (EC) No 216/2008, and custom-built evaluation kits designed for professionals to be used solely at R&D facilities are also excluded. Another exclusion is radio equipment used by radio amateurs, which falls within the meaning of Article 1, definition 56, of the International Telecommunications Union Radio regulations’. Such equipment must not be available on the market which means: • Radio kits for assembly and use by radio amateurs • Radio equipment modified by and for the use of amateurs • Equipment constructed by individual radio amateurs for experimental and scientific purposes related to amateur radio. Increasing compliance levels The core goals of the RED are to strengthen the level of compliance, as well as clarifying and simplifying the Directive. The RED’s new requirements are therefore intended to clearly spell out the responsibilities and obligations for every economic operator involved in the supply chain (manufacturer, importer, distributor, authorised representative). This means that all items of equipment that fall within its scope, placed on the European market for the first time, must follow a RED conformity assessment procedure. The good news is that the general principles for product compliance in the RED are very similar to the R&TTE Directive. This is because compliance is within a set of essential requirements. Harmonised standards also provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. The RED also requires the use of a Notified Body where no radio or relevant Article 3.3 Harmonised Standard exists. Read the full article online at www.electronics-eetimes.com Jean-Louis Evans is Managing Director at TÜV SÜD Product Service, a global product testing and certification organisation, and at its sister company, TÜV SÜD BABT, the world’s leading radio and telecommunications certification body - www.tuv-sud.co.uk www.electronics-eetimes.com Electronic Engineering Times Europe September 2015 41


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